critical & theoretical
The immediately following pieces are by by myself.
Below, there is a section of other writing on digital poetics that I have found useful,
and some writing digital media works that I've cited.
in reverse date order
Cayley, John. ‘Aurature at the End(s) of Electronic Literature.’ Electronic Book Review (2015): [under review].
_____. ‘Of Capta, Vectoralists, Reading and the Googlization of Universities.’ In Digital Humanities and Digital Media: conversations on politics, culture, aesthetics, and literacy, edited by Roberto Simanowski, 69-92. London: Open Humanities Press. The book is published as an Open Access pdf available here, and the pdf of my interview is downloadable here.
_____. ‘Humus ... Human ... Humus (a Review of Mark C. Taylor Rewiring the Real).’ Novel: a forum on fiction 48.3 (2015): 465-68.
_____. ‘Editor’s Choice Review of PRY by Samantha Gorman and Danny Cannizzaro.’ Bomb 132 (2015): 14.
_____. ‘Untranslatability and Readability.’ Critical Multilingualism Studies 3.1 (2015): 70-89.
_____. ‘Poetry and Stuff: A Review of #!’ Electronic Book Review (2015).
_____. ‘Beginning with ‘the Image’ in How It Is When Translating Certain Processes of Digital Language Art.’ Electronic Book Review (2015).
_____. ‘Reading and Giving—Voice and Language.’ Performance Research 18.5 (2013): 10-19.
Howe, Daniel C. and John Cayley. ‘Reading, Writing, and Resisting: Literary Appropriation in The Readers Project.’ (with Daniel C. Howe) International Symposium of Electronic Art (ISEA). Eds. Kathy Cleland, Laura Fisher and Ross Harley. Sydney: ISEA International, the Australian Network for Art & Technology and the University of Sydney, 2013.
Cayley, John. ‘Pentameters toward the Dissolution of Certain Vectoralist Relations.’ Amodern 2 (2013):
_____. ‘Terms of Reference & Vectoralist Transgressions: Situating Certain Literary Transactions over Networked Services.’ Amodern 2 (2013):
_____. 'Weapons of the Deconstructive Masses (WDM): Whatever Electronic Literature May or May Not Mean.' Revista de Estudos Literários 1.2 (Literatura no século XXI) (2012): 25-56. (The complete essay.)
_____. 'Writing to Be Found and Writing Readers.' Digital Humanities Quarterly 5.3 (Aug 2011): http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/5/3/000104/000104.html.
Howe, Daniel C. and John Cayley. 'The Readers Project: Procedural Agents and Literary Vectors.' Leonardo 44.4 (August 2011) 317-24. Link to abstract.
Cayley, John. Interview for Bat of Minerva originally conducted Mar 2009, recently made available on refurbished UoM, Institute for Advanced Study website at: http://www.ias.umn.edu/media/BatofMinerva/Cayley.php.
_____. 'The Gravity of the Leaf: Phenomenologies of Literary Inscription in Media-Constituted Diegetic Worlds.' Beyond the Screen: Transformations of Literary Structures, Interfaces and Genres. Eds. Peter Gendolla and Jörgen Schäfer. Media Upheavals. Bielefeld: Transcript, 2010. 199-226.
Tianshu: Passages in the Making of a Book by John Cayley with Xu Bing and others, ed. Katherine Spears. London: Bernard Quaritch, 2009. (Difficult to get but available in the US from Worldwide Books).
Cayley, John. 'Screen Writing: A Practice-Based, Eurorelative Introduction to Electronic Literature and Poetics.' Third Text 21.5 (2007): 603-09. Revised and extended in: Literary Art in Digital Performance: Case Studies in New Media Art and Criticism. Ed. Francisco J. Ricardo. New York: Continuum, 2009. 178-90.
_____. 'Weapons of the Deconstructive Masses: Whatever Electronic Literature May or May Not Mean.' Hyperhiz 6 (Sept 2009) [http://www.hyperrhiz.net/hyperrhiz06/essays/weapons-of-the-deconstructive-masses.html].
_____. 'Digital Poetics: An interactive reading with comment by Rita Raley.' at the University of Minnesota, Institute of Advanced Study, March 5, 2009. http://www.ias.umn.edu/media/CayleyRaley.php.
_____. 'Lens: The Practice and Poetics of Writing in Immersive VR.' Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 'New Media Poetry and Poetics' Special Issue, Vol 14, No. 5-6 (2006). http://leoalmanac.org/journal/vol_14/lea_v14_n05-06/jcayley.asp If this link is broken (during reestablishment of the LEA archive) a pdf is available here PDF.
_____. 'An Interview with John Cayley on Torus by Rita Raley.' Iowa Review Web 8, no. 3 (Sept. 2006): [Website accessed Dec 2006 at http://iowareview.uiowa.edu/TIRW/TIRW_Archive/september06/cayley/cayley.html].
_____. 'Time Code Language: New Media Poetics and Programmed Signification.' In New Media Poetics: Contexts, Technotexts, and Theories, edited by Adalaide Morris and Thomas Swiss. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006, pp. 307-33, see the MIT site.
_____. 'Writing on Complex Surfaces.' dichtung-digital 35 (2/2005) [http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2005/2-Cayley.htm]. Originally given as a paper at the 6th DAC (Digital Arts & Culture) Conference, IT University, Copenhagen, 1-3 December, 2005.
_____. 'Bass Resonance.' Mute, Winter/Spring 2005, 22-24. (Article based on a review of an exhibition of the work of Saul Bass, especially his film titles.) Now also available on the Electronic Book Review at http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/dynamic.
_____. 'Screen::Writing: a EuroRelative Introduction to Electronic Literature and Poetics.' a presentation for the conference 'Writing Europe,' Kyiv, Ukraine, June 28-July 2, 2005 [http://www.europequartet.org/presentations/16_John_Cayley_presentation.pdf]
_____. 'Overboard: An Example of Ambient Time-Based Poetics in Digital Art.' dichtung-digital 32 (2/2004) [http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2004/2-Cayley.htm].
_____. 'Literal Art: Neither Lines nor Pixels but Letters.' In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game, edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 208-17. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004. Also available on the Web at: http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/firstperson/programmatology.
Glazier, Loss Pequeño, and John Cayley, eds. Ergodic Poetry: A Special Section of the Cybertext Yearbook 2002. Edited by Markku Eskelinen and Raine Koskimaa, Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture: Cybertext Yearbook. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2003.
Cayley, John. 'Hypertext/Cybertext/Poetext.' In Assembling Alternatives: Reading Postmodern Poetries Transnationally, edited by Romana Huk, 310-26. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2003. A version of this essay is also available on the Web at: http://programmatology.shadoof.net/works/hypercyberpoetext/.
_____. 'Digital Wen: On the Digitization of Letter- and Character-Based Systems of Inscription.' In Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory, edited by Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, 277-94. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
_____. 'Inner Workings: Code and Representations of Interiority in New Media Poetics.' dichtung-digital 29 (2003): [Website accessed September 2003 at http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2003/3-cayley.htm] based on a presentation at the Language and Encoding Conference, Buffalo, Nov. 02, proceedings edited by Loss Pequeño Glazier.
_____. 'From Byte to Inscription: An Interview with John Cayley by Brian Kim Stefans.' Iowa Review Web 5, no. 1 (2003): [Website accessed July 2010 at http://iowareview.uiowa.edu/TIRW/TIRW_Archive/tirweb/feature/cayley/index.html].
_____. 'Pressing the "Reveal Code" Key.' In The New Media Reader, edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Monfort, Included on the CD-ROM. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
_____. 'Hallucination and Coherence.' Positions 10, no. 3 (2002): 773-84.
_____. 'The Code Is Not the Text (Unless It Is the Text).' Electronic Book Review (2002): [Website accessed September 2003 at http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/literal].
_____. 'Of Programmatology: Interview with John Cayley by John Welch.' Fourth Door Review 2001, 13-17.
_____. 'In the Event of Text: Interview with John Cayley by Markku Eskelinen.' In Cybertext Yearbook 2000, edited by Markku Eskelinen and Raine Koskimaa, 86-99. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2001.
_____. 'A Stranger to Yourself: Ways of Becoming an Other. An Interview/Discussion with Yang Lian.' New Formations 40 (2000): 15-29.
_____. 'Writing (under-)Sky: On Xu Bing's Tianshu.' In A Book of the Book: Some Work and Projections About the Book and Writing, edited by Jerome Rothenberg and Stephen Clay, 497-503. New York: Granary Books, 2000. Also available at http://www.shadoof.net/in/ts.html.
_____. 'Between Here and Nowhere.' The Little Magazine 22cd 'Gravitational Intrigue' (1999). A version of this essay is also available on the Web at: http://www.shadoof.net/in/translit/transl.html.
_____. 'Scrittura (Sotto Il) Cielo: Il Libro Dal Cielo De Xu Bing.' In Forma de Parole: Un'altra Cina: Poeti e narratori degli anni Novanta (1999): 145-53.
_____. 'Subject: Experiments; and Subject: Inscription in Complex Media.' In Poetics@, edited by Joel Kuszai, 88-89; 174-76. New York: Roof Books, 1999.
_____. 'Of Programmatology.' Mute, Fall 1998, 72-75.
_____. 'Author's Note.' In Poems for the Millennium: The University of California Book of Modern and Postmodern Poetry, edited by Jerome Rothenberg and Pierre Joris, 827-28. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
_____. 'Why Did People Make Things Like This?' [Creative contributuion to Web-based journal]. Electronic Book Review, 1997 [cited February 2002]. Available from http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/speculative.
_____. Pressing the "Reveal Code" Key [Email-delivered, peer-reviewed periodical]. EJournal, 1996 [Accessed Apr 2 2011]. Available from http://www.ucalgary.ca/ejournal/archive/ej-6-1.txt.
_____. 'Beyond Codexspace: Potentialities of Literary Cybertext.' Visible Language 30, no. 2 (1996): 164-83.
(building up slowly ...)
'transitional media' publication of generated work
especially writing to be found
Cayley, John. 'Zero-Count Stitcher 1 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 7 • 8.' Veer About 3 (Feb 2011) [no page numbers; see http://intercapillaryspace.blogspot.com/2011/02/veer-about-2010-2011.html; large pdf download of the entire issue here].
certain of my works
Engberg, Maria. 'Morphing Into New Modes of Writing: John Cayley's riverIsland.' Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 'New Media Poetry and Poetics' Special Issue, Vol 14, No. 5-6 (2006). [http://leoalmanac.org/journal/vol_14/lea_v14_n05-06/mengberg.asp].
_____. 'Stepping into the River: Experiencing John Cayley's riverIsland.' dichtung-digital 35 (2/2005) [http://www.dichtung-digital.org/2005/2-Engberg.htm].
Chris Funkhouser, 'Irregular Solid: John Cayley's Cybertextually Engineered Digital Poetry - an essay.' Enter Text 5.3 (Winter 2005-2006) [for the issues table of contents: http://arts.brunel.ac.uk/gate/entertext/issue_5_3.htm; to download the document: http://arts.brunel.ac.uk/gate/entertext/5_3/ET53FunkhouserEd.doc].
Hansen, Mark. Digital Textuality. Conference on New Media, Technology and the Humanities 17-18 February, 2006. University of California, Irvine, School of Humanities, Humanitech. [http://www.humanities.uci.edu/humanitech/newmediaconference/FriPM8.mp3]. Also to be published in an edited book of essays.
Hayles, N. Katherine. 'The Time of Digital Poetry: From Object to Event,' in Morris, Adalaide, and Thomas Swiss, eds. New Media Poetics: Contexts, Technotexts, and Theories. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006, pp. 181-210.
Raley, Rita. Trans_code. Conference on New Media, Technology and the Humanities 17-18 February, 2006. University of California, Irvine, School of Humanities, Humanitech. [http://www.humanities.uci.edu/humanitech/newmediaconference/FriPM9.mp3]. Also to be published in an edited book of essays.
other writing on digital poetics
Aarseth, Espen. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Baldwin, Sandy. 'Process Window: Code Work, Code Aesthetics, Code Poetics.' In Ergodic Poetry: A Special Section of the Cybertext Yearbook 2002 : Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, edited by Loss Pequeño Glazier and John Cayley. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2003.
Bootz, Philippe. 'Hypertext: Solution/Dissolution.' In Ergodic Poetry: A Special Section of the Cybertext Yearbook 2002, edited by Loss Pequeño Glazier and John Cayley. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2003.
Bök, Christian. 'The Piecemeal Bard Is Deconstructed: Notes toward a Potential Robopoetics.' Object 10, no. Special Issue (2001): 10-18.
Brown, Nathan. 'Needle on the Real: Technoscience and Poetry at the Limits of Fabrication.' in Hayles, N. Katherine ed. Nanoculture: Implications of the New Technoscience. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2004, pp. 173-90.
Cramer, Florian. 'Digital Code and Literary Text.' BeeHive Hypertext/Hypermedia Literary Journal 4, no. 3 (2001): [Website accessed May 2003 at http://beehive.temporalimage.com/content_apps43/app_d.html].
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. 1st American ed. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.
_____. 'Freud and the Scene of Writing.' In Writing and Difference, 196-231. London: Routledge, 1978.
_____. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression. Translated by Eric Prenowitz. Edited by Mark C. Taylor, Relgion and Postmodernism. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Drucker, Joanna. The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art, 1909-1923. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
_____. 'Intimations of Immateriality: Graphical Form, Textual Sense, and the Electronic Environment.' In Reimagining Textuality: Textual Studies in the Late Age of Print, edited by Loizeaux and Fraistat: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.
Druckrey, Timothy, ed. Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual Representation. New York: Aperture, 1996.
Emerson, Lori. 'Numbered Space and Topographic Writing.' Leonardo Electronic Almanac, 'New Media Poetry and Poetics' Special Issue, Vol 14, No. 5-6 (2006). [http://leoalmanac.org/journal/vol_14/lea_v14_n05-06/lemerson.asp].
Eskelinen, Markku, and Raine Koskimaa, eds. Cybertext Yearbook 2000, Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, 68. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2001.
_____. Cybertext Yearbook 2001, Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, 72. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2002.
Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge. Edited by R. D. Laing, World of Man. London: Tavistock, 1972.
Freud, Sigmund. 'A Note Upon the ‘Mystic Writing-Pad’.' In On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis, edited by Angela Richards, 427-34. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1991.
Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Edited by Richard Macksey and Michael Sprinker. 1st English ed, Literature, Culture, Theory 20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Glazier, Loss Pequeño. Digital Poetics: The Making of E-Poetries. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002.
Goldsmith, Kenneth. 'Cyber Poetics.' Object 10, no. Special Issue (2001).
Hartman, Charles O. Virtual Muse: Experiments in Computer Poetry. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 1996.
Hayles, N. Katherine. Chaos Bound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
_____. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
_____. 'Print Is Flat, Code Is Deep: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis.' Poetics Today (2001).
_____. 'Materiality Has Always Been in Play: An Interview with N. Katherine Hayles by Lisa Gitelman.' The Iowa Review Web (2002): [Website accessed May 2003 at http://iowareview.uiowa.edu/TIRW/TIRW_Archive/tirweb/feature/hayles/hayles.htm#].
_____. Writing Machines. Edited by Peter Lunenfeld, Mediawork. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002.
_____. 'Deeper into the Machine: The Future of Electronic Literature.' Culture Machine 5, no. e-Issue (2003): [Website accessed March 2003 at http://culturemachine.tees.ac.uk/Articles/Hayles/NHayles.htm].
_____. 'Translating Media: Why We Should Rethink Textuality.' The Yale Journal of Criticism 16, no. 2 (2003): 263-90.
_____. My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Hayles, N. Katherine ed. Nanoculture: Implications of the New Technoscience. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2004.
Hockx, Michel, and Ivo Smits, eds. Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory, Routledgecurzon-Iias Asian Studies Series. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
Joyce, Michael. Of Two Minds: Hypertext Peda-Gogy and Poetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Kenner, Hugh. The Mechanic Muse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Kittler, Friedrich A. Discourse Networks 1800/1900. Translated by Michael Metter and Chris Cullens. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990.
_____. Literature, Media, Information Systems: Essays. Edited by John Johnston, Critical Voices in Art, Theory and Culture. Amsteldijk: G+B Arts International, 1997.
_____. 'There Is No Software.' In Literature Media Information Systems, edited by John Johnston, 147-55. Amsteldijk: G+B Arts International, 1997.
_____. 'The World of the Symbolic: A World of the Machine.' In Literature Media Information Systems, edited by John Johnston, 130-46. Amsteldijk: G+B Arts International, 1997.
_____. Gramophone, Film, Typewriter. Translated by Geoffrey Winthrop-Young and Michael Wutz. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Lunenfeld, Peter, ed. The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media. Edited by Roger F. Malina, Leonardo. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
Marvin, Carolyn. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking About Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Masten, Jeffrey, Peter Stallybrass, and Nancy Vickers, eds. Language Machines: Technologies of Literary and Cultural Production, Essays from the English Institute. London: Routledge, 1997.
Morris, Adalaide, and Thomas Swiss eds. New Media Poetics: Contexts, Technotexts, and Theories. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006
Motte, Warren F., trans. and, ed. Oulipo: A Primer of Potential Literature. Normal, Il: Dalkey Archive Press, 1998. Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 1998.
Nelson, Theodor Holm. Literary Machines 93.1. Sausalito: Mindful Press, 1993.
_____. Zigzag [Web site]. 1 October 2001 [cited May 2003]. Available from http://xanadu.com/zigzag.
Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Edited by Terence Hawkes, New Accents. London: Routledge, 1982. Reprint, 1995.
Parrish, Katherine. 'How We Became Automatic Poetry Generators: It Was the Best of Times, It Was the Blurst of Times.' Object 10, no. Special Issue (2001): 41-48.
Perloff, Majorie. Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Raley, Rita. Interferences: [Net.Writing] and the Practice of Codework [Article in Web-based journal]. Electronic Book Review, 2002 [cited September 2002]. Available from http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/electropoetics/net.writing.
Rosenberg, Jim. 'The Interactive Diagram Sentence: Hypertext as a Medium of Thought.' Visible Language 30, no. 2 (1996): Also on Rosenberg's web site http://www.well.com/user/jer/VL.html [Accessed July 10, 2002].
_____. 'Questions About the Second Move.' In Ergodic Poetry: A Special Section of the Cybertext Yearbook 2002 : Publications of the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, edited by Loss Pequeño Glazier and John Cayley. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2003.
Rothenberg, Jerome, and Stephen Clay, eds. A Book of the Book: Some Work and Projections About the Book and Writing. New York: Granary Books, 2000.
Ryan, Marie-Laure, ed. Cyberspace Textuality: Computer Technology and Literary Theory. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1999.
Stefans, Brian Kim. Fashionable Noise: On Digital Poetics. Berkeley: Atelos, 2003.
_____. 'Privileging Language: The Text in Electronic Writing.' Electronic Book Review, 2005 [accessed November 2005]. Available from http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/firstperson/databased.
_____. 'Stops and Rebels: A Critique of Hypertext.' In Fashionable Noise: On Digital Poetics, 61-169. Berkeley: Atelos, 2003.
Tiffany, Daniel. Toy Medium: Materialism and the Modern Lyric. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Ulmer, Gregory L. Applied Grammatology: Post(E)-Pedagogy from Jacques Derrida to Joseph Beuys. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1985.
Wardrip-Fruin, Noah, and Nick Monfort, eds. The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
Wershler-Henry, Darren, ed. Cyberpoetics, Open Letter, Tenth Series, Number 9, Fall 2000. Toronto: Open Letter, 2000.
by author i aim to put up many more links over time
Chan, Paul. Alternumerics [Website]. National Philistine, 2000 [cited February 2002]. Available from http://www.nationalphilistine.com/alternumerics/.
Goldsmith, Kenneth. Fidget [Web site]. Coach House Books, 2000 [cited July 2002]. Available from http://www.chbooks.com/online/fidget.html.
Hennessy, Neil. Jabber: The Jabberwocky Engine [Web site]. UbuWeb, 2000 [cited July 2002]. Available from http://www.ubu.com/papers/ol/hennessy02.html.
Jodi. www.jodi.org: Jodi, 1980.
Memmott, Talan. From Lexia to Perplexia [Website]. Trace; and BeeHive Hypertext/Hypermedia Literary Journal, 2000 [cited February 2002]. Available from http://trace.ntu.ac.uk/newmedia/lexia/index.htm.
Mez = Mary-Anne Breeze. _the Data][H!][Bleeding T.Ex][E][Ts [Website]. 2001 [cited February 2002]. Available from http://netwurkerz.de/mez/datableed/complete/index.htm.
Rosenberg, Jim. Intergrams. Cambridge, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1993.
_____. The Barrier Frames: Finality Crystal Shunt Curl Chant Quickening Giveaway Stare; Diffractions Through: Thirst Weep Ransack (Frailty) Veer Tide Elegy. Cambridge, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1996.
Stefans, Brian Kim. The Dreamlife of Letters [Flash-based Web site]. UbuWeb, 2001 [cited September 2003]. Available from http://www.ubu.com/contemp/stefans/dream/.